Debunking Myths Relating to Bankers Declaration of Assets Law

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Daily Law Tips (Tip 773) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LL.M,
ACIArb(UK)

image

Introduction:
Several myths and conspiracy theories have been birthed around the
Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act, since the recent
order from the Economic Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). The
EFCC had on 16 March 2021, ordered all employees of financial
institutions (including banks) in Nigeria to declare their assets
before 1st June 2021. It claimed to have made the “EFCC Order) in
line with the provisions of the Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration
of Assets) Act. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[1]>)

image

Expectedly, the “EFCC Order” has since been opposed by organized
pressure groups of bankers and other employees of financial
institutions. Considering the age of the Bank Employees, etc.
(Declaration of Assets) Act and its unpopularity, many stakeholders
have expressed and popularized their wrong understanding of the
Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act. This has created
several myths and conspiracy theories around the “BEDA Act”. Hence,
this work is designed to save the day, by “Debunking Myths Relating
to Bankers Declaration of Assets Law”. A version of this work
was earlier published on ThisDay Newspaper (a national daily) on 6
April 2021, under the title “Legality Of The EFCC Order on Bank
Employees Declaration of Assets” on its hard copy at page 8 and
online copy at <https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/04/06/legality-of-the-efcc-order-on-bank-employees-declaration-of-assets/amp/[2]>.

The Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act (“BEDA
Act”) is a federal law made in September 1986. The “BEDA Act”
mandates all employees and former employees of the Nigeria Customs
Service, the Central Bank of Nigeria, Banks, Bureau de Change,
Cryptocurrencies operators and all other financial institutions in
Nigeria or in foreign branches to declare their assets annually and
to continue to do so even 2 years after termination of the
employment. It also, allows the President of Nigeria to add more
persons to the list of persons to be bound by the law to declare
their assets.

Myths and Conspiracy Theories about the “BEDA Act”:
Below is an attempt to debunk some of the popular myths and
conspiracy theories about and around the Bank Employees, etc.
(Declaration of Assets) Act (“BEDA Act”).

1.1 Prior to 16 March 2021, most Nigerians were only aware of
the declaration of assets by public officers (government workers)
under the Code of Conduct. This is easily justifiable, since public
officers mingle with public funds and trust, so there is need to
track their personal assets. Hence, there was or is a popular
assumption among many Nigerians, that private persons and
businesses have no duty to declare their assets. Well, this
assumption has been wrong since 26 September 1986, when the “BEDA
Act” was made to compel private citizens employed in the financial
sector of the economy to declare their assets.
1.2 “BEDA Act” is not a creation of the EFCC or President Muhammed
Buhari. Rather, “BEDA Act” is a thirty-Five (35) years old existing
federal legislation that has rarely been enforced in Nigeria. The
law was made on 26 September 1986.

1.3 An aide of President Muhammed Buhari of Nigeria (Lauretta
Onochie) was reported by the International Centre for Investigative
Reporting (ICIR) to have while relying on the “BEDA Act” and the
“EFCC Order”, twitted that; “Lifestyle audit is now legal in
Nigeria. Those who flaunt lifestyles they cannot afford, can now be
investigated by any of the anti-graft agencies to produce evidence
of the sources of their wealth. You can now be called upon to
explain how you acquired certain properties.”. It is important to
note that the “BEDA Act” does not affect persons that are not
employees under the “BEDA Act”. Only the following persons are
under the “BEDA Act”; the employees and former employees of the
Nigeria Customs Service, the Central Bank of Nigeria, Banks, Bureau
de Change, Cryptocurrencies operators and all other financial
institutions in Nigeria or in foreign branches. Although, section 7
of the “BEDA Act” creates the offence of “Unjust Enrichment” it
focuses/applies only to employees that are under the “BEDA Act”.
The offence is clearly defined to cover only an employee that is
under the “BEDA Act”, that “… owns assets in excess of his
legitimate, known and provable income and assets”. The “BEDA Act”
does not by any chance create room for lifestyle auditing of all
Nigerians. However, by a combination of some existing laws in
Nigeria, lifestyle auditing can be conducted on any person in
Nigeria by some national security agencies.

1.4 Chief Dele Momodu asked some questions in response to the
“EFCC Order” and the “BEDA Act”, which seems to represent views of
some Nigerians. Chief Dele, asked; “Are we in a military regime?
Why not start with government agencies and politicians? Banks
belong largely to the private sector.” In response to his question;
it is important to note that the “BEDA Act” is an existing federal
government law and not a presidential order. By the “BEDA Act” some
specific private persons are to declare their assets and the
President of Nigeria can also increase the categories of persons
that must make such assets declaration. So, Nigeria is not under a
military regime but under a democracy, and under the democracy is a
democratic legislation that mandates certain private persons to
declare their assets annually. Also, Government workers and public
officers are to declare their assets under the Code of Conduct.
However, as rightly pointed out by Chief Dele, there is need for
the President of Nigeria to exercise his powers under the “BEDA
Act” and enlist politicians into the list of private persons that
should declare their assets annually.

1.5 The Association of Senior Staff for Banks, Insurance and
other Financial Institutions (ASSBIFI) was reported to have
objected to the “EFCC Order” and its President was reported to have
said, “EFCC has the right to investigate the top management and
board of directors of banks but ordinary workers who are diligently
carrying out their responsibilities as professionals should be
exempted.” In response to his statement, it must be emphasized that
the “BEDA Act” has not exempted any bank or financial institution
worker from making declaration of assets. The “BEDA Act” covers all
workers in the financial sector, from drivers, gardeners to top
executives and from permanent staff to adhoc/part-time staff.
Hence, the EFCC and even the President of Nigeria lacks the power
to remove or exempt any person listed in the “BEDA Act”.

1.6 The National Union of Banks, Insurance and Financial
Institutions Employees (NUBIFE) in communicating its displeasure,
stated through its Deputy General Secretary, that, “Another thing
is that they said bank workers. Now, who are the bank workers? They
should go to CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria) and ask who are the bank
workers? The CBN has said that about 90 per cent of those working
in banks are not bank workers. So, if you are saying tellers,
marketers and others are not bank workers, then fine. In that case,
they (EFCC) should focus on the MDs (managing directors) of banks.”
The “BEDA Act” has gone ahead of the growing confusion on the
status of bank workers and bank casual/part-time workers. The “BEDA
Act” expressly stated that all manner, title and types of workers
in the bank and financial institutions are to declare their assets.
The “BEDA Act” covers all employees of financial institutions in
Nigeria and those in their foreign branches, from the bank
executives to cleaners, drivers, messengers and security men.

1.7 It has also been canvassed by some persons that the Central
Bank of Nigeria (CBN) collects assets declaration from top
executives of financial institutions and as such that the “BEDA
Act” and the “EFCC Order” are not necessary. This conclusion is
wrong. Whatever assets declaration that the CBN collects is good
and commendable. However, the “BEDA Act” is specific on how assets
declaration forms are to be completed, submitted, delivered,
timelines and the relevant person to receive such forms. Under the
“BEDA Act” the CBN is not a collector of assets declaration forms
rather it is the Secretary to the Federal Government of Nigeria or
its agents. The CBN rather is expected to ensure that its employees
declare their assets and that the Governor of the CBN delivers such
declarations to the Secretary to the Federal Government.

Conclusion:
Although the ignorance of law is not an excuse, government owes a
duty to the citizens, to ensure that laws are gazetted and even
popularized. Government must support free legal awareness in order
to increase access to justice. The unpopularity of the thirty-five
(35) years old “BEDA Act” has further deepened the ignorance of
Nigerians on the provisions of the “BEDA Act”. Hence, when the EFCC
mentioned the “BEDA Act” in March 2021, several baseless objections
were raised by many stakeholders. As opinion makers/pilots, the
defective positions of most stakeholders on the “BEDA Act” are now
popular myths across Nigeria. The myths threaten compliance and
enforcement of the “BEDA Act” and calls into action the services of
legal myth busters. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[3]>).

My authorities, are:

1. Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.
2. Sections 1 to 14 of the Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of
Assets) Act 1986. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[4]>
3. The Supreme Court judgment on “Meaning of Regulation” in the
case of AG LAGOS STATE v. EKO HOTELS LTD & ANOR (2006)
LPELR-3161(SC)
4. The Court of Appeal judgment on “Meaning of Executive
Order/Regulation” in the case of ELEPHANT GROUP PLC v. NATIONAL
SECURITY ADVISER & ANOR (2018) LPELR-45528(CA)
5. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the
case of COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF CUSTOMS & ORS v. COMPTROLLER
ABDULLAHI B. GUSAU (2017) LPELR-42081(SC).
6. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the
case of UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC & ANOR. v. IFEOLUWA NIG.
ENTERPRISES LTD (2007) 7 NWLR (Pt.1032) 71 at 84.
7. Onyekachi Umah, “Unlawfulness of the EFCC Order on Bankers
Declaration of Assets” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 April 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/unlawfulness-of-the-efcc-order-on-bankers-declaration-of-assets/>
accessed 12 April 2021
8. Onyekachi Umah, “Legality of the “EFCC Order” on Bank Employees
Declaration of Assets” (ThisDay, 6 April 2021)
<https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/04/06/legality-of-the-efcc-order-on-bank-employees-declaration-of-assets/amp/[5]>
accessed 7 April 2021.
9. Onyekachi Umah, “The Minimum Financial Threshold for EFCC
Cases.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-minimum-financial-threshold-for-efcc-cases[6]/> accessed 2 April
2020
10. Onyekachi Umah, “Can the Central Bank of Nigeria blacklist a
Bank Employee?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 29 March 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-the-central-bank-of-nigeria-blacklist-a-bank-employee/[7]> accessed 2
April 2021
11. Onyekachi Umah, “Duty of Care Owed By Banks in Nigeria.”
(LearnNigrianLaws.com, 1 April 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/duty-of-care-owed-by-banks-in-nigeria/>
accessed 2 April 2021
12. Onyekachi Umah, “The Central Bank of Nigeria Notices on
Cryptocurrencies; a Ban or a Banger?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9
February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-central-bank-of-nigeria-notices-on-cryptocurrencies-a-ban-or-a-banger/[8]> accessed 2 April
2021
13. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Are The Shareholders Of The Central Bank
Of Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 7 February 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-263-who-are-the-shareholders-of-the-central-bank-of-nigeria/[9]> accessed 2 April
2021
14. Onyekachi Umah, ”How To Prove That A Bank Is Licensed In
Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 30 March 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-prove-that-a-bank-is-licensed-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-300-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/[10]> accessed 2 April
2021
15. Onyekachi Umah, “Nigeria Has No Law Against Public Gathering
During Covid-19 Era” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 April 2020)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/nigeria-has-no-law-against-public-gathering-during-covid-19-era-daily-law-tips-tip-547-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/[11]> accessed 2 April
2021
16. Deji Elumoye, “EFCC Directs Bankers to Declare Assets by June
1” (ThisDay, 17 March 2021)
<https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/03/17/efcc-directs-bankers-to-declare-assets-by-june-1/>
accessed 2 April 2021
17. Wasilat Azeez, “EFCC orders bank workers to declare assets,
sets June 1 deadline” (theCable, 16 March 2021) <https://www.thecable.ng/efcc-orders-bank-workers-to-declare-assets-sets-june-1-deadline[12]> accessed 2
April 2021
18. Chike Oliseh, “EFCC gives all bankers ultimatum to declare
their assets” (Nairametrics, 17 March 2021) <https://nairametrics.com/2021/03/17/efcc-gives-all-bankers-ultimatum-to-declare-their-assets/[13]> accessed 2
April 2021.
19. Fikayo Olowolagba, “We’re not in military regime – Momodu
reacts as EFCC orders bankers to declare assets” (Daily Post, 16
March 2021)
<https://dailypost.ng/2021/03/16/were-not-in-military-regime-momodu-reacts-as-efcc-orders-bankers-to-declare-assets/>
accessed 2 April 2021
20. Comms Week, “Bankers Protest EFCC’s Order to Declare Assets”
(Nigeria Communications Week, 22 March 2021) <https://www.nigeriacommunicationsweek.com.ng/bankers-protest-efccs-order-to-declare-assets/[14]> accessed 2 April
2021
21. Ibrahim Yusuf, “Protests greet EFCC asset declaration order to
banks” (TheNation, 21 March 2021) <https://thenationonlineng.net/protests-greet-efcc-asset-declaration-order-to-banks/[15]> accessed 2 April
2021
22. Gabriel Ewepu, “CISLAC hails EFCC’s order to bankers on asset
declaration” (Vanguard, 19 March 2021) <https://www.vanguardngr.com/2021/03/cislac-hails-efccs-order-to-bankers-on-asset-declaration/[16]“> accessed 2 April
2021
23. Wale Odunsi, “Bankers help fraudsters – CHRSJ backs EFCC on
asset declaration” (DailyPost, 29 March 2021)
<https://dailypost.ng/2021/03/29/bankers-help-fraudsters-chrsj-backs-efcc-on-asset-declaration/>
accessed 2 April 2021
24. The Editorial Board, “Assets declaration should be all
embracing” (Business Day, 26 March 2021) <https://businessday.ng/editorial/article/assets-declaration-should-be-all-embracing/[17]> accessed 2 April
2021
25. Dipo Olowookere, “Bank CEOs, Others Jittery Over EFCC Asset
Declaration Directive” (Business Post, 17 March 2021) <https://businesspost.ng/banking/bank-ceos-others-jittery-over-efcc-asset-declaration-directive/[18]> accessed 2 April
2021
26. Fakoyejo Olalekan, “EFCC amends charge against
ex-Intercontinental Bank MD, Erastus Akingbola” (Nairametrics, 14
March 2019) <https://nairametrics.com/2019/03/14/efcc-amends-charge-against-ex-intercontinental-bank-md-erastus-akingbola/[19]> accessed 2 April
2021.
27. Thisday, “EFCC Arraigns BDC Operators for Laundering $1.6m”
(Thisday, 30 June 2020) <https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2020/06/30/efcc-arraigns-bdc-operators-for-laundering-1-6m/[20]> accessed 2 April
2021
28. Ann Godwin, “Banks becoming money laundering institutions, EFCC
boss alleges” (Guardian, 6 April 2019) <https://guardian.ng/news/banks-becoming-money-laundering-institutions-efcc-boss-alleges/[21]> accessed 2 April
2021
29. Kunle Sanmi, “Bank worker, wife arrested over alleged $1.49
million money laundering” (Premium Times, 4 November 2019)
<https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/360933-bank-worker-wife-arrested-over-alleged-1-49-million-money-laundering.html[22]> accessed 2 April
2021
30. Ihuoma Chiedozie, “Lifestyle audit: Nigerians with ‘unexplained
wealth’ to lose assets to FG” (ICRC, 27 March 2021) <https://www.icirnigeria.org/lifestyle-audit-nigerians-with-unexplained-wealth-to-lose-assets-to-fg[23]/> accessed 2 April
2021.

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Daily Law Tips (Tip 773) by Onyekachi Umah, Esq., LL.M,
ACIArb(UK)

image

Introduction:
Several myths and conspiracy theories have been birthed around the
Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act, since the recent
order from the Economic Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). The
EFCC had on 16 March 2021, ordered all employees of financial
institutions (including banks) in Nigeria to declare their assets
before 1st June 2021. It claimed to have made the “EFCC Order) in
line with the provisions of the Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration
of Assets) Act. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[1]>)

image

Expectedly, the “EFCC Order” has since been opposed by organized
pressure groups of bankers and other employees of financial
institutions. Considering the age of the Bank Employees, etc.
(Declaration of Assets) Act and its unpopularity, many stakeholders
have expressed and popularized their wrong understanding of the
Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act. This has created
several myths and conspiracy theories around the “BEDA Act”. Hence,
this work is designed to save the day, by “Debunking Myths Relating
to Bankers Declaration of Assets Law”. A version of this work
was earlier published on ThisDay Newspaper (a national daily) on 6
April 2021, under the title “Legality Of The EFCC Order on Bank
Employees Declaration of Assets” on its hard copy at page 8 and
online copy at <https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/04/06/legality-of-the-efcc-order-on-bank-employees-declaration-of-assets/amp/[2]>.

The Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of Assets) Act (“BEDA
Act”) is a federal law made in September 1986. The “BEDA Act”
mandates all employees and former employees of the Nigeria Customs
Service, the Central Bank of Nigeria, Banks, Bureau de Change,
Cryptocurrencies operators and all other financial institutions in
Nigeria or in foreign branches to declare their assets annually and
to continue to do so even 2 years after termination of the
employment. It also, allows the President of Nigeria to add more
persons to the list of persons to be bound by the law to declare
their assets.

Myths and Conspiracy Theories about the “BEDA Act”:
Below is an attempt to debunk some of the popular myths and
conspiracy theories about and around the Bank Employees, etc.
(Declaration of Assets) Act (“BEDA Act”).

1.1 Prior to 16 March 2021, most Nigerians were only aware of
the declaration of assets by public officers (government workers)
under the Code of Conduct. This is easily justifiable, since public
officers mingle with public funds and trust, so there is need to
track their personal assets. Hence, there was or is a popular
assumption among many Nigerians, that private persons and
businesses have no duty to declare their assets. Well, this
assumption has been wrong since 26 September 1986, when the “BEDA
Act” was made to compel private citizens employed in the financial
sector of the economy to declare their assets.
1.2 “BEDA Act” is not a creation of the EFCC or President Muhammed
Buhari. Rather, “BEDA Act” is a thirty-Five (35) years old existing
federal legislation that has rarely been enforced in Nigeria. The
law was made on 26 September 1986.

1.3 An aide of President Muhammed Buhari of Nigeria (Lauretta
Onochie) was reported by the International Centre for Investigative
Reporting (ICIR) to have while relying on the “BEDA Act” and the
“EFCC Order”, twitted that; “Lifestyle audit is now legal in
Nigeria. Those who flaunt lifestyles they cannot afford, can now be
investigated by any of the anti-graft agencies to produce evidence
of the sources of their wealth. You can now be called upon to
explain how you acquired certain properties.”. It is important to
note that the “BEDA Act” does not affect persons that are not
employees under the “BEDA Act”. Only the following persons are
under the “BEDA Act”; the employees and former employees of the
Nigeria Customs Service, the Central Bank of Nigeria, Banks, Bureau
de Change, Cryptocurrencies operators and all other financial
institutions in Nigeria or in foreign branches. Although, section 7
of the “BEDA Act” creates the offence of “Unjust Enrichment” it
focuses/applies only to employees that are under the “BEDA Act”.
The offence is clearly defined to cover only an employee that is
under the “BEDA Act”, that “… owns assets in excess of his
legitimate, known and provable income and assets”. The “BEDA Act”
does not by any chance create room for lifestyle auditing of all
Nigerians. However, by a combination of some existing laws in
Nigeria, lifestyle auditing can be conducted on any person in
Nigeria by some national security agencies.

1.4 Chief Dele Momodu asked some questions in response to the
“EFCC Order” and the “BEDA Act”, which seems to represent views of
some Nigerians. Chief Dele, asked; “Are we in a military regime?
Why not start with government agencies and politicians? Banks
belong largely to the private sector.” In response to his question;
it is important to note that the “BEDA Act” is an existing federal
government law and not a presidential order. By the “BEDA Act” some
specific private persons are to declare their assets and the
President of Nigeria can also increase the categories of persons
that must make such assets declaration. So, Nigeria is not under a
military regime but under a democracy, and under the democracy is a
democratic legislation that mandates certain private persons to
declare their assets annually. Also, Government workers and public
officers are to declare their assets under the Code of Conduct.
However, as rightly pointed out by Chief Dele, there is need for
the President of Nigeria to exercise his powers under the “BEDA
Act” and enlist politicians into the list of private persons that
should declare their assets annually.

1.5 The Association of Senior Staff for Banks, Insurance and
other Financial Institutions (ASSBIFI) was reported to have
objected to the “EFCC Order” and its President was reported to have
said, “EFCC has the right to investigate the top management and
board of directors of banks but ordinary workers who are diligently
carrying out their responsibilities as professionals should be
exempted.” In response to his statement, it must be emphasized that
the “BEDA Act” has not exempted any bank or financial institution
worker from making declaration of assets. The “BEDA Act” covers all
workers in the financial sector, from drivers, gardeners to top
executives and from permanent staff to adhoc/part-time staff.
Hence, the EFCC and even the President of Nigeria lacks the power
to remove or exempt any person listed in the “BEDA Act”.

1.6 The National Union of Banks, Insurance and Financial
Institutions Employees (NUBIFE) in communicating its displeasure,
stated through its Deputy General Secretary, that, “Another thing
is that they said bank workers. Now, who are the bank workers? They
should go to CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria) and ask who are the bank
workers? The CBN has said that about 90 per cent of those working
in banks are not bank workers. So, if you are saying tellers,
marketers and others are not bank workers, then fine. In that case,
they (EFCC) should focus on the MDs (managing directors) of banks.”
The “BEDA Act” has gone ahead of the growing confusion on the
status of bank workers and bank casual/part-time workers. The “BEDA
Act” expressly stated that all manner, title and types of workers
in the bank and financial institutions are to declare their assets.
The “BEDA Act” covers all employees of financial institutions in
Nigeria and those in their foreign branches, from the bank
executives to cleaners, drivers, messengers and security men.

1.7 It has also been canvassed by some persons that the Central
Bank of Nigeria (CBN) collects assets declaration from top
executives of financial institutions and as such that the “BEDA
Act” and the “EFCC Order” are not necessary. This conclusion is
wrong. Whatever assets declaration that the CBN collects is good
and commendable. However, the “BEDA Act” is specific on how assets
declaration forms are to be completed, submitted, delivered,
timelines and the relevant person to receive such forms. Under the
“BEDA Act” the CBN is not a collector of assets declaration forms
rather it is the Secretary to the Federal Government of Nigeria or
its agents. The CBN rather is expected to ensure that its employees
declare their assets and that the Governor of the CBN delivers such
declarations to the Secretary to the Federal Government.

Conclusion:
Although the ignorance of law is not an excuse, government owes a
duty to the citizens, to ensure that laws are gazetted and even
popularized. Government must support free legal awareness in order
to increase access to justice. The unpopularity of the thirty-five
(35) years old “BEDA Act” has further deepened the ignorance of
Nigerians on the provisions of the “BEDA Act”. Hence, when the EFCC
mentioned the “BEDA Act” in March 2021, several baseless objections
were raised by many stakeholders. As opinion makers/pilots, the
defective positions of most stakeholders on the “BEDA Act” are now
popular myths across Nigeria. The myths threaten compliance and
enforcement of the “BEDA Act” and calls into action the services of
legal myth busters. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[3]>).

My authorities, are:

1. Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.
2. Sections 1 to 14 of the Bank Employees, etc. (Declaration of
Assets) Act 1986. (Free copy of this law is accessible via
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BANK-EMPLOYEES-ETC.-DECLARATION-OF-ASSETS-1986.pdf[4]>
3. The Supreme Court judgment on “Meaning of Regulation” in the
case of AG LAGOS STATE v. EKO HOTELS LTD & ANOR (2006)
LPELR-3161(SC)
4. The Court of Appeal judgment on “Meaning of Executive
Order/Regulation” in the case of ELEPHANT GROUP PLC v. NATIONAL
SECURITY ADVISER & ANOR (2018) LPELR-45528(CA)
5. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the
case of COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF CUSTOMS & ORS v. COMPTROLLER
ABDULLAHI B. GUSAU (2017) LPELR-42081(SC).
6. The Supreme Court judgment on “Policy Documents/Guidance” in the
case of UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC & ANOR. v. IFEOLUWA NIG.
ENTERPRISES LTD (2007) 7 NWLR (Pt.1032) 71 at 84.
7. Onyekachi Umah, “Unlawfulness of the EFCC Order on Bankers
Declaration of Assets” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 8 April 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/unlawfulness-of-the-efcc-order-on-bankers-declaration-of-assets/>
accessed 12 April 2021
8. Onyekachi Umah, “Legality of the “EFCC Order” on Bank Employees
Declaration of Assets” (ThisDay, 6 April 2021)
<https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/04/06/legality-of-the-efcc-order-on-bank-employees-declaration-of-assets/amp/[5]>
accessed 7 April 2021.
9. Onyekachi Umah, “The Minimum Financial Threshold for EFCC
Cases.” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 1 September 2020) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-minimum-financial-threshold-for-efcc-cases[6]/> accessed 2 April
2020
10. Onyekachi Umah, “Can the Central Bank of Nigeria blacklist a
Bank Employee?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 29 March 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/can-the-central-bank-of-nigeria-blacklist-a-bank-employee/[7]> accessed 2
April 2021
11. Onyekachi Umah, “Duty of Care Owed By Banks in Nigeria.”
(LearnNigrianLaws.com, 1 April 2021)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/duty-of-care-owed-by-banks-in-nigeria/>
accessed 2 April 2021
12. Onyekachi Umah, “The Central Bank of Nigeria Notices on
Cryptocurrencies; a Ban or a Banger?” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 9
February 2021) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/the-central-bank-of-nigeria-notices-on-cryptocurrencies-a-ban-or-a-banger/[8]> accessed 2 April
2021
13. Onyekachi Umah, “Who Are The Shareholders Of The Central Bank
Of Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 7 February 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/daily-law-tips-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-tip-263-who-are-the-shareholders-of-the-central-bank-of-nigeria/[9]> accessed 2 April
2021
14. Onyekachi Umah, ”How To Prove That A Bank Is Licensed In
Nigeria” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 30 March 2019) <https://learnnigerianlaws.com/how-to-prove-that-a-bank-is-licensed-in-nigeria-daily-law-tips-tip-300-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarb-uk/[10]> accessed 2 April
2021
15. Onyekachi Umah, “Nigeria Has No Law Against Public Gathering
During Covid-19 Era” (LearnNigerianLaws.com, 14 April 2020)
<https://learnnigerianlaws.com/nigeria-has-no-law-against-public-gathering-during-covid-19-era-daily-law-tips-tip-547-by-onyekachi-umah-esq-llm-aciarbuk/[11]> accessed 2 April
2021
16. Deji Elumoye, “EFCC Directs Bankers to Declare Assets by June
1” (ThisDay, 17 March 2021)
<https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2021/03/17/efcc-directs-bankers-to-declare-assets-by-june-1/>
accessed 2 April 2021
17. Wasilat Azeez, “EFCC orders bank workers to declare assets,
sets June 1 deadline” (theCable, 16 March 2021) <https://www.thecable.ng/efcc-orders-bank-workers-to-declare-assets-sets-june-1-deadline[12]> accessed 2
April 2021
18. Chike Oliseh, “EFCC gives all bankers ultimatum to declare
their assets” (Nairametrics, 17 March 2021) <https://nairametrics.com/2021/03/17/efcc-gives-all-bankers-ultimatum-to-declare-their-assets/[13]> accessed 2
April 2021.
19. Fikayo Olowolagba, “We’re not in military regime – Momodu
reacts as EFCC orders bankers to declare assets” (Daily Post, 16
March 2021)
<https://dailypost.ng/2021/03/16/were-not-in-military-regime-momodu-reacts-as-efcc-orders-bankers-to-declare-assets/>
accessed 2 April 2021
20. Comms Week, “Bankers Protest EFCC’s Order to Declare Assets”
(Nigeria Communications Week, 22 March 2021) <https://www.nigeriacommunicationsweek.com.ng/bankers-protest-efccs-order-to-declare-assets/[14]> accessed 2 April
2021
21. Ibrahim Yusuf, “Protests greet EFCC asset declaration order to
banks” (TheNation, 21 March 2021) <https://thenationonlineng.net/protests-greet-efcc-asset-declaration-order-to-banks/[15]> accessed 2 April
2021
22. Gabriel Ewepu, “CISLAC hails EFCC’s order to bankers on asset
declaration” (Vanguard, 19 March 2021) <https://www.vanguardngr.com/2021/03/cislac-hails-efccs-order-to-bankers-on-asset-declaration/[16]“> accessed 2 April
2021
23. Wale Odunsi, “Bankers help fraudsters – CHRSJ backs EFCC on
asset declaration” (DailyPost, 29 March 2021)
<https://dailypost.ng/2021/03/29/bankers-help-fraudsters-chrsj-backs-efcc-on-asset-declaration/>
accessed 2 April 2021
24. The Editorial Board, “Assets declaration should be all
embracing” (Business Day, 26 March 2021) <https://businessday.ng/editorial/article/assets-declaration-should-be-all-embracing/[17]> accessed 2 April
2021
25. Dipo Olowookere, “Bank CEOs, Others Jittery Over EFCC Asset
Declaration Directive” (Business Post, 17 March 2021) <https://businesspost.ng/banking/bank-ceos-others-jittery-over-efcc-asset-declaration-directive/[18]> accessed 2 April
2021
26. Fakoyejo Olalekan, “EFCC amends charge against
ex-Intercontinental Bank MD, Erastus Akingbola” (Nairametrics, 14
March 2019) <https://nairametrics.com/2019/03/14/efcc-amends-charge-against-ex-intercontinental-bank-md-erastus-akingbola/[19]> accessed 2 April
2021.
27. Thisday, “EFCC Arraigns BDC Operators for Laundering $1.6m”
(Thisday, 30 June 2020) <https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2020/06/30/efcc-arraigns-bdc-operators-for-laundering-1-6m/[20]> accessed 2 April
2021
28. Ann Godwin, “Banks becoming money laundering institutions, EFCC
boss alleges” (Guardian, 6 April 2019) <https://guardian.ng/news/banks-becoming-money-laundering-institutions-efcc-boss-alleges/[21]> accessed 2 April
2021
29. Kunle Sanmi, “Bank worker, wife arrested over alleged $1.49
million money laundering” (Premium Times, 4 November 2019)
<https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/360933-bank-worker-wife-arrested-over-alleged-1-49-million-money-laundering.html[22]> accessed 2 April
2021
30. Ihuoma Chiedozie, “Lifestyle audit: Nigerians with ‘unexplained
wealth’ to lose assets to FG” (ICRC, 27 March 2021) <https://www.icirnigeria.org/lifestyle-audit-nigerians-with-unexplained-wealth-to-lose-assets-to-fg[23]/> accessed 2 April
2021.

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